Founded in 1928 by Vittorio Gui as the Stabile Orchestrale Fiorentina, from its inception the Orchestra plays in concerts and operas of the Teatro Comunale. Today it is still considered one of the finest orchestras both by conductors and public.
In 1933, at the birth of the Festival, takes the actual name of Orchestra del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. After Gui, Mario Rossi became music director in 1937, and after the war, Bruno Bartoletti was given the position.
Major chapters in the history of the Orchestra are the musical direction of Riccardo Muti (1969 – 1981) and that of Zubin Mehta, Principal Conductor since 1985, who every season conducts major symphonic and operatic productions. In the course of its history the Orchestra has been led by some of the greatest conductors such as Victor De Sabata, Antonio Guarnieri, Gino Marinuzzi, Gianandrea Gavazzeni, Tullio Serafin, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Bruno Walter, Otto Klemperer, Issay Dobrowen, Jonel Perlea, Erich Kleiber, Arthur Rodzinski, Dimitri Mitropoulos, Herbert von Karajan, Leonard Bernstein, Thomas Schippers, Claudio Abbado, Lorin Maazel, Carlo Maria Giulini, Georges Prêtre, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Carlos Kleiber, Georg Solti, Riccardo Chailly, Giuseppe Sinopoli, Seiji Ozawa and Daniele Gatti.
- Don Pasquale: intervista a Nicola Ulivieri (baritono) Don Pasquale!Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino (stagione 2019-2020)
- Don Pasquale: intervista al direttore d'orchestra: Antonino FoglianiTeatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino (stagione 2019-2020)
- Don Pasquale: intervista al regista Andrea BernardTeatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino (stagione 2019-2020)